By Andreas Wolf (auth.), Dr. Heinrich F. Beyer, Dr. Viatcheslav P. Shevelko (eds.)
The ebook publications the reader to the study frontiers in atomic physics with heavy ions, giving a concise picture of the complicated experimental and theoretical tools exemplified through the latest effects. It levels from accelerator and ion catch know-how, over the $64000 and basic info within the realizing of strongly certain far-electron structures, to radiative and collisional phenomena of those gadgets. The subfields were rigorously chosen; each one is roofed by way of major specialists who draw a full of life photo in their research.
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Extra resources for Atomic Physics with Heavy Ions
Direct electron beam heating of the low-charge neon ions is small. They are heated primarily by collisions with high-charge uranium ions before escaping axially (evaporating) from the trap with the removal of qNe • VA ~ 300 eV per neon ion (VA is the axial trapping potential over which the ions escape). Evaporative cooling is extremely efficient, producing a population of uranium ions that remain trapped for several minutes, or even hours under optimum conditions. G. Schneider et al. a large number of low-charge uranium ions from the MEVVA.
Yoshzawa, Y. Hirao: IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 32, 2684 (1985) 13. S. P. Ml/lller: in Conference Record of the 1991 IEEE Particle Accelerator Conference, San Francisco, 1991, L. Lizana, J. Chew, eds. IEEE Catalog No. 91CH3030-7 (IEEE, New York, 1991), p. 1741 14. B. Franzke, K Beckert, F. Bosch, H. Eickhoff, B. Franczak, A. Gruber, O. Klepper, F. Nolden, P. Raabe, H. Reich, P. Spadtke, M. Steck, J. Struckmeier: in Proceedings of the 1993 Particle Accelerator Conference, Washington DC, 1993, ed. by S.
For a pulsed extraction, the center drift tube potential can be raised to 20-200 V above the top drift tube potential, thereby expelling the ions. Ls needed for retrapping experiments. Once outside the center drift tube the ions are accelerated into the extractor optics and analyzing magnet for momentum analysis. In the pulsed mode the evolution of the charge state distribution of all the ions in the trap can be studied by varying the time for ionization. A charge state spectrum from extracted ions at Super EBIT is shown in Fig.